What it is. Orthodontics involves the alignment of teeth and correction of the bite. Orthodontists complete an additional two to three years of university-based education, upon graduating from dental school, for orthodontic training and residency.

When and why it's needed. Orthodontics is used to diagnose, prevent and treat misaligned teeth and facial irregularities with realignment of the teeth, jaws and bite. Treatment can involve children, youth and adults.

Before and After

Misalignment prior to orthodontic treatment:

Following a precise orthodontic treatment plan:

Orthodontic treatment and photography provided by Dr. Donald D. Routier.